Results: PRL was statistically higher in the CD patients (13.5 ± 9.2 ng/ml) than in the controls (8.5 ± 5.0 ng/ml). In the CD group, PRL was inversely correlated with the age at diagnosis (r = -0.326; p = 0.007). In patients with hyperprolactinemia at diagnosis, PRL decreased after 6 months of GFD. Conclusion: This paper confirms that PRL may be increased at diagnosis of CD and shows, for the first time, that it decreases after a short course of GFD. Changes in the levels of inflammatory cytokines in CD may account for changes in PRL levels. Younger patients seem more prone to develop hyperprolactinemia than older ones.
Prolactin is produced by the anterior pituitary gland. It is most well known for its role in the breast gland by stimulating physiological processes necessary for lactation, and it is involved in sexual gratification after sexual acts by counteracting dopamine, the neurochemical involved in sexual arousal. Elevated prolactin levels may also decrease testosterone in men and estrogen in women.[ii]
In reality, prolactin's role is so vast that its complexity is incalculable, having been found to have approximately 300 separate actions in vertebrates.[iii] Any disruption therefore of its normal function or concentrations would have a wide range of downstream effects.
The researchers focused on elevated prolactin levels as a marker of autoimmune disease. They describe a number of conditions linked to hyperprolactinemia
Hyperprolactinemia is described in a lot of autoimmune diseases, both systemic (rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis and Sjögren's syndrome) [23–25] and organ-specific (Addison's disease, CD, type 1 diabetes mellitus, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Graves' disease, lym- phocytic hypophysitis and multiple sclerosis) [26–31]
While this hypothesis may turn out to be accurate, previous animal research indicates that opiate-like components within wheat known as gluten exorphins may also be involved. A 2004 study in the journal Nutritional Neuroscience found an elevation of serum prolactin levels after administration of the alimentary opioid peptide gluten exorphin B4 in male rats.[iv] An earlier 2003 study published in the journal Pharmacological Research found that gluten exporphin B4's prolactin enhancing properties were mediated through classical opioid receptors,[v] revealing another mechanism beyond provoking inflammation through which wheat may disrupt prolactin levels.
The researchers concluded with the following remarks:
"In conclusion, we show that PRL may be increased in CD children and adolescents at diagnosis. In newly diagnosed CD patients, the mean PRL level is higher (especially in younger patients) than in healthy subjects, but in only 6 months of GFD it is possible to reduce this level. We hypothesize that PRL levels in CD are affected by inflammatory cytokines, whose production is associated with gliadin ingestion and increases when the autoinflammatory mechanisms are active."This latest study just adds to the increasing skepticism people have as far as wheat's role in human health are concerned. No matter what the exact mechanism of action, it is clear that wheat (especially modern, highly hybridized and gluten rich wheat) can no longer be considered the wholesome, glorified health food that it once was for decades, and even centuries – at least not for everyone.
To learn more about the dark side of wheat, read my essay on the topic: http://www.greenmedinfo.com/page/dark-side-wheat-new-perspectives-celiac-disease-wheat-intolerance-sayer-ji
[i] GreenMedInfo.com, Wheat: 200 Clinically Confirmed Reasons Not To Eat It
[ii] Prolactinoma—Mayo Clinic
[iii] Bole-Feysot C, Goffin V, Edery M, Binart N, Kelly PA (June 1998). "Prolactin (PRL) and its receptor: actions, signal transduction pathways and phenotypes observed in PRL receptor knockout mice". Endocr. Rev. 19 (3): 225–68. doi:10.1210/er.19.3.225. PMID 9626554.
[iv] G Fanciulli, A Dettori, M P Demontis, V Anania, G Delitala. Serum prolactin levels after administration of the alimentary opioid peptide gluten exorphin B4 in male rats. Nutr Neurosci. 2004 Feb;7(1):53-5. PMID: 15085559
[v] Giuseppe Fanciulli, Alessandra Dettori, Emma Fenude, Maria Piera Demontis, Elisabetta Alberico, Giuseppe Delitala, Vittorio Anania. Intravenous administration of the food-derived opioid peptide gluten exorphin B5 stimulates prolactin secretion in rats. Pharmacol Res. 2003 Jan ;47(1):53-8. PMID: 12526862
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